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A Foolproof Guide To African Safari Planning


Last Updated on October 5, 2023 by Nicole

There is something a little overwhelming and intimidating about African safari planning. However, it really doesn’t have to be. The key is to understand the important questions that you should answer before booking your trip. It doesn’t matter if you decide to try and do your own African safari planning or hire a travel agent to help. You should be aware that every country, National Park, conservatory, reserve, and lodge offer something different from each other.

An African safari is a trip of a lifetime. Most likely, it will be a very challenging one on your budget. Accordingly, you want and should expect this trip to be as “perfect” as it can be. What “perfect” means for one person will be very different from another. So, spend the time and research, ask questions, and make sure that your African safari planning results in one of the best experiences of your life. Do not blindly trust a travel agent, no matter how good, or what your best buddy had to say about their experience. There are just too many variables and too many individual expectations for a one-size fits all approach.

African Safari Planning
A mother elephant and her baby surrounded by around 21 other elephants.

My African Safari Experiences

I have had the privilege of going on eight safaris in five African countries over the last 34 years. I have been on safaris in Kenya (1985 and 2019), Botswana (1996), Zambia (2014), Zimbabwe (2014), South Africa (1996 and 2014) and Namibia (2023). Every time, I have fallen more deeply in love with the country, the people and the wild life. And every time, I couldn’t wait to go back.

African safari planning

On paper, my safari experiences have been very different from one another.

  • Accommodation: From camping (1985)) to staying in hotels (1996 and 2014) to our own house with private staff (2014 and 2019);
  • Transportation: From a truck (1985) to a group bus tour (1996) to self driving in South Africa (2014) to planes (2014 and 2019);
  • Safari style: From an open air jeep safari (1985, 1996, 2014 and 2019) to a river safari (1996 and 2014), walking safari (2014 and 2019), canoeing safari (2014), to a night safari (2014, 2019), and horseback riding safari (2019).

However, the exhilaration of witnessing these magnificent creatures in their natural habitat is equal no matter how you get there, or where you stay. Nevertheless, the details are important. You want to have the best experiences and create memories that make you smile every time you think about them.

My two most memorable safaris

Every single one of my safari experiences have left me filled with wonderment and beautiful memories. I don’t want to bore you with recounting them all! However, I do want to talk about two significant ones. They were completely different in budget and comfort, but the thrill of the safari were equal and absolutely captivating.

African Safari Planning
One of the many beautiful birds all over Africa.

Kenya 1985

My first was 34 years ago when I was a student on a school trip. We went to Kenya, camped in the Masai Mara without a fence in sight, and had little to no adult supervision.  If you haven’t been, Masai Mara is one of the best safaris in Kenya. We were completely surrounded by animals all day and all night, including the most dangerous – lions, water buffalo, elephants, cheetahs and leopards. There was nothing stopping any animal from wondering into our camp. Every morning, I found paw prints just outside the door of our tent.

Our bathrooms were where we made them, normally a short walk away into the bush. No one guided or watched us as we left camp and none of us seemed concerned by or even aware of the danger. The innocence or stupidity of youth?!!

In the day, we hopped on our open air truck and looked for animals. Boy did we see them. Three decades ago, they were everywhere. We chased ostriches to see how fast they could run (very illegal now – I feel a little guilty that we did this – but as a matter of interest, they can really run fast.). We watched cheetahs hunt and try to kill a gazelle (they missed) and stumbled upon lions devouring an impala the morning after New Year’s Eve (not good on the tummy). All of it was thrilling, magical and a dream come true. This is when I fell in love with Africa.

African Safari Planning
Cheetah on the hunt.

Zambia 2014

Fast forward almost 30 years, and I arrived in Zambia by private plane with my four children, one of whom was only a year younger than when I went on my first safari in 1985. This time we went to Chongwe River House in Zambia. We had a whole house to ourselves mere steps from the Chongwe River and a staff of 16 looking after us. The level of luxury, service, and attention to detail that we had was exceptional. It was an experience that I have never had before or have had since.

Although the details are very different between 1985 and 2014, the excitement of the safaris remained the same.

We spent most days on the Chongwe and Zambezi Rivers on a small boat, dodging angry hippos in our path. Hundreds of elephants, hippos and crocodiles surrounded us constantly. Sometimes, we stayed in the boat, had cocktails and watched the sunset and the animals preparing for the night. Other times, we canoed and glided mere feet from hippos just on top of the surface or elephants along the shores, wondering if this was the time they would charge or attack us. Still other times, we went to the Lower Zambezi National Park and by jeep or on foot, spent hours searching for animals.

African safari planning
On our speed boat returning to our private home on the Chongwe River in Zambia


I’ll never forget finding a pride of 17 lions who had just killed a young elephant. While we watched them eat, a ginormous elephant came charging out of the brush towards the lions, ears flapping and trunk blaring. The lions scattered. Then, we watched it hover in despair over the dead elephant, wondering who this poor creature used to be to this elephant.

African safari planning
An elephant charging towards a pride of lions who had killed and were eating a young elephant.

If you are interested in reading more about our time at Chongwe River House, please see the following:

Chongwe River House: A Luxury African Safari With Kids; and

Luxury African Safari: Six Different Types of Safaris That Must Be Experienced.

What To Research When African Safari Planning

So how do you figure out where to go, how much you should spend, and how to manage your expectations of what you will find? How do you create your “perfect” experience with your African safari planning?

You ask and research a lot of different things.

1. Weather

Africa is huge and weather varies significantly from one coast to another (north to south and east to west). It is essential to understand the weather of the country in the month that you are considering going. Neither animals nor humans like extreme heat or torrential downpours. You need to make sure that the weather is well suited for animal viewing.

2. High Season vs. Low Season

When you go definitely impacts the cost and whether there will be lots of people on the reserves and in the parks. Whether one month is in high season or low season is normally driven by demand. Accordingly, the weeks around Christmas and Easter, and all summer tend to be high season and the most expensive for safaris. If at all possible, it is best to avoid these times. However, for the rest of the year, you might be surprised to find great deals during a time that you wouldn’t normally expect.  Do not be too shy to explore this.

Recently, we visited Kenya in late March. My kids happened to be off school for two weeks, a school holiday that was not shared by many places around the world. Accordingly, our visit landed in low season. Not only did we pay a fraction of the cost for the exact same safari had we gone in the summer months, we received a bunch of extras for free for which we would have normally had to pay. Even better, there was hardly anyone around.

African safari planning
Sunrise looking over Loisaba Laikipia with Mount Kenya in the distance.

However, low season could also mean that the weather isn’t great or something else. Consequently, before you book a safari in low season, make sure you figure out if there is anything other than low demand that is driving the cost down.

3. National Parks or Private Reserves

Generally there are two types of game reserves. National parks/reserves run by governments or local councils, and private game reserves/conservancies normally owned by a lodge or a group of entitles. It is very important to understand what each offers when you are doing your African safari planning.

National Parks/Reserves

Typically, there is no limit to the number of visitors allowed in national parks each day. This means that it can get pretty busy so that on game drives, you will likely see other vehicles. In high season, you may even find yourself in a traffic jam as cars jostle for space along a road, waiting for their turn to see the animals that have caught everyone’s attention.

African Safari Planning
A male lion overlooking his pride of females.

In addition, what you are allowed to do is limited. Normally, visitors must stay on the designated roads and are only allowed in the park during set daylight hours. Further, guests are only allowed game drives. They are not allowed to do other types of activities, such as walking, horseback riding, or night safaris.

Nonetheless, they are less expensive than private reserves because you can manage your own day to day costs better. You can book your own accommodation either outside or inside the national park (depending on the park) at a budget that suits you. Then, you can either rent your own car and go on your own safari or you can find a separate tour operator offering one to multi-day safaris in their own open-air vehicle.

Kruger National Park

We did this back in 2014 when we were in South Africa. We rented a car and a private home outside Kruger National Park with the intent to explore the region – not to do a safari as we had safaris planned later in Zambia. However, one day, we decided we wanted to go into Kruger. We decided to hire a safari guide and vehicle instead of doing it on our own so we could relax and enjoy the experience.

African safari planning
Olivia and Juliet in our jeep in Kruger National Park.

It was great. So easy to organize and very inexpensive when compared to any of our private reserve experiences. For sure it was crowded and I didn’t like the zoo-like feeling of people lining up to see the animals. However, Kruger National park is absolutely huge. We were just on the outskirts because we were only going in for a day. If you have the time, you can spend days heading into the centre of Kruger to get a more exclusive experience. Also, there was lots of accommodation offered within the park to suit different budgets.

Private Reserves/Conservancies

Private reserves or conservancies are owned privately – surprise! They offer a more exclusive safari experience where it is possible to escape the crowds.

Only the guests and the employees of the lodge within the private reserve are allowed to use it.  Since you are outside the boundaries of national parks or national reserves, the rules governing where and when you can drive are inapplicable. Accordingly, the guides can drive off-road in search of big cats, or do night drives in search of nocturnal animals. In addition, many private reserves offer walking safaris, horseback or camel riding, or biking safaris. These are very unique and special experiences. Unsurprisingly, these private lodges are often very expensive. For a more detailed look at what your day-to-day experience might be at a private reserve, please take a look at this article What Happens On A Typical African Safari Day?| A Step By Step Guide

African safari planning
Having cocktails to watch the sunset (called sundowner) before we start our night safari.


We just returned from Elewana Loisaba Tented Camp and Elewana Star Beds, luxury camps on 57,000 acres in the Loisaba Conservancy, a private reserve. The accommodation was unbelievably beautiful and luxurious. The service was impeccable. I will write in more detail about our stay at another time. However, what I want to highlight is that apart from a small campsite located elsewhere on the conservancy, guests at these two camps had the exclusive use of the 57,000 acres. Between the two accommodations, there were only 16 rooms.

African Safari Planning
Our beautiful tents at Elawana Tented Camps.
African Safari Planning
Our private pool overlooking the Loisaba conservancy.

As you can imagine, we didn’t see another soul when we were out on our safaris. It was simply extraordinary to be alone in such a beautiful part of the world, surrounded by animals in their natural habitat. At night, without any light pollution anywhere, the sky was alight with stars and the moon. It was breathtaking and very special.

4. How many lodges with how many beds?

This leads me to another important point of which you should be aware if you are looking into private reserves or conservancies. Just because an area is called private or a conservancy, doesn’t necessarily mean it can’t get crowded. You need to determine how many lodges and more importantly, how many beds are in or have access to the reserve.

African safari planning
A rhino that we saw in 2014 in Kruger National Park.

We just returned from the Mara North Conservancy in Kenya, a 61,000 private game reserve.  It was March and low season. For the most part, we hardly saw another vehicle. However, a couple of times, in particular when we were following a pride of lions or a couple of cheetahs, 2 or 4 vehicles did show up as well. Even when it was only a couple of vehicles, it kind of ruined the moment. Instead of only being aware of the animals, you are aware of another vehicle and a group of people, often in your line of sight, or maybe with its engines going when you have turned yours off.

We later learned that there are multiple lodges that have access to the Mara North Conservancy. One of which, the Fairmont Mara Safari Club, has 116 beds. I can only imagine how busy this private reserve would be in high season. If you decide to pay extra and usually, quite a lot more, for a private reserve experience, you should make sure that it is going to be worth the cost.

5. Activities offered by the private reserves

I have already briefly mentioned that private reserves offer activities that are not offered in national parks. However, not all private reserves offer the same things. We horseback rode, did night safaris and a walking safari at Loisaba. They also offered camel and bike riding safaris.

African safari planning
Our Samburu guide on our walking safari.
African safari planning
Following our guide on our horseback riding safari with giraffes in the background.
African safari planning
Me horseback riding on the game reserve.

When we were at Chongwe River House in Zambia in 2014, we did river safaris by speed boat and canoe.

In the Mara North Conservancy, the only safari -like activities that were allowed were night and walking safaris.

After experiencing all these different safaris, I would highly recommend choosing a reserve that offers you some of these amazing opportunities. There is nothing quite like walking or horseback riding while being surrounded by wild animals.

African safari planning
Guests at Loisaba can take a camel safari. We didn’t do this but it looked fun.

6. Wildlife 

Every country, national park and private reserve will offer different wild life. That is why people normally go to two or more locations on safari. When doing your African safari planning, you need to be very mindful of what is rare or missing in the national park or lodge where you are staying, or what is unique.

For example, when we were in Loisaba Conservancy in northern Kenya, there weren’t any rhinoceros and we saw only one hippo. Hippos love water and March is the end of the dry season. Accordingly, the rivers were mostly dried up and only small watering holes were left. However, we did see the endangered  Grevy zebras, which are only located in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia, and the striped hyenas, another rare find.

African safari planning
Grevy zebras

We later moved to the Mara North Conservancy,  a private reserve next to the Masai Mara National Park, and saw hundreds of hippos in the river. There still wasn’t any rhinos, but that was ok. We had already seen them on previous safaris. However, if this was going to be one of your only trips to Africa for a safari, you want to make sure that you will see everything that is important to you.

African safari planning
A bloat (group) of hippos in the Mara River. There were hundreds all over the river.

7. Topography

It is important to understand the lay of the land, so to speak, when you are African safari planning. Is the national park or reserve flat or hilly? Are there tall green grasses, bushes and trees everywhere or is it the dry season with next to no grass? Is there a large and thriving river (it doesn’t dry up in the dry season) or only watering holes? These are all important considerations that will impact your animal viewing.

We were in the Loisaba Conservancy in late March, the end of the dry season. It was very hilly, with lots of bush, and the rivers were dried up. Accordingly, it was tougher to spot animals and we were completely unable to view wildlife on the river.

Mara North Conservancy was the opposite. It was flat, with some bush but mostly open plains, short grass, and with a thriving river running through it. We had absolutely no problem spotting animals. In fact, sometimes we could spin 360 degrees and see probably hundreds of animals all around us. In addition, we spent time at the river and saw hundreds of hippos and some crocodiles.

The wide open plains of Mara North on our walking safari.

Which is better?

I bet your first thought is “I would definitely go to the Mara North Conservancy over Loisaba”. However, I wouldn’t. For sure the animal viewing was easy – almost effortless. If you had limited time or budget, then going to some place like this would be ideal to see as much as you could as quickly as possible. But for me, there is more to it.

As discussed earlier, Loisaba offered many activities that were truly unique and exhilarating to experience. I like that it took a bit more effort to find and spot animals. It felt a little more authentic. In addition, I enjoyed not being able to see everything at once. We would drive up a hill and I would wonder what animals might be waiting for us at the top, or in the bushes. When we found them, it seemed extra thrilling.

African safari planning
Breakfast outside in the game reserve after our horseback riding safari


The amount that you should expect, want or have to spend for an African safari is a very important and large topic. For that reason, I have written a separate article that only focuses on cost. It is called Six Simple Steps To Create Your Own Affordable African Safari. If you are interested in how and when to save money on your African safari, then this article is for you!


At the start, African safari planning may seem intimidating. However, once you understand the key factors in making it a success, it becomes something very manageable. For most of us, Africa and the countries in Africa that offer safaris are a very long way from home. They are expensive to get to and many safaris are costly to take. Accordingly, it is worth your while to understand what is going to be a good safari versus the “perfect” safari for you. Whether you plan to do your African safari planning on your own, or to hire a travel agent, only you know exactly what would make this a trip of a lifetime.

If you would like to save this article for future use, please click on the “save” button on the photo below.

African safari planning can be very intimidating. I have done 8 safaris in 5 countries over 34 years. Here are 7 questions that you need to answer, regardless if you are using a travel agent or booking it yourself, so that you can create the best African safari experience possible. #travel #familytravel #gofargrowclose |Botswana, Chongwe, horseback, Indian Ocean, Kenya, Kruger National Park, Loisaba, Mara North, Masai Mara, river, safaris, South Africa, walking, Zambezi, zambia, Zimbabwe|

the authorNicole


  • You have articulated everything beautifully, thanks for sharing your experience and the tips you have picked up along the way!

  • Very well-written and detailed article — and so appreciated! I do want to go on a safari someday, and I literally have no idea where to start in my research. Or at least I didn’t. You’ve really helped me realize the kinds of experiences I would like to have and how I can find them. Your photos are stunning, and your genuine love of the wildlife and safari experiences is inspiring. I think it’s wonderful that you were also able to take your whole family! I re-pinned this for future reference!

    • Thanks Tami. It is a trip of a lifetime. When you get there, you will fall in love with everything!

  • What beautiful photos Nicole! I didn’t get to do a safari sadly when I was in South Africa or in Tanzania, and what a shame! Your tip about high vs low season is so important to note too. I really hope we get to do our first safari one day soon.

    • I’d love to know why you were in Tanzania if not for a safari. That would be really interesting! Maybe climbing Mount Kilimanjaro? Anyways, I hope that you make it on a safari soon too.

  • I did a safari in South Africa earlier this decade. It was completely on the fly, but I did get to see a few animals I’d never seen before.

    • Sometimes impromptu things end up creating the best memories. You aren’t really expecting much and then, you have this amazing experience seeing some incredible animals. It sounds like it was a great last minute choice.

  • We often debate with my friends about the opportunity of going on a safari with young kids. What is in your opinion the most appropriate age to go on a safari?

    • That’s a good question. It really depends on behaviour of the children. Can they stay quiet, still and listen to instructions? Will they be scared of the animals? Also, you should also make sure that the accommodation is fully fenced.

  • Wow, you’ve done 8 safaris in 5 countries, that’s really amazing! Believe it or not, I haven’t even done one as yet. In fact, I haven’t been to Africa (Zanzibar doesn’t count) yet and I really wish to get there soon. I would like to pick one between Kruger National Park or Masai Mara and it sounds like Masai Mara would be a better option.

    • Zanzibar is in Africa, but I understand what you are saying! LOL! It has lovely beach resorts and no safaris. Well, it sounds like you have already flown a great distance to do something pretty cool. So it sounds like a safari is in your future!

  • This is a very useful article to help travelers decide how to even start with planning an African safari. Yes, it is not an easy task at first but later, when you know the key features as you have mentioned, it gets easier. Considering the season and weather, it is wise to decide where you want to stay and do safari. I was in Masai Mara last year and had a great time witnessing the Wildebeest Migration.

    • I would love to witness the Wildebeest Migration. That is one of the experiences that I have not yet had. How wonderful! I’d love to hear more about it.

    • Like you I’ve done 8 safaris in 7 countries over a thirty five year period. We’re returning twice next year including South Africa to see the wild flowers in the north west cape. I have three comments and a correction. First, first, or even second timers I strongly suggest against a you-drive. If you don’t know the flora and fauna, trying to learn while your driving is a lost cause. And while the animals are great, the birdlife is spectacular. Nice to have an expert guide to point this all out. Second, I think of the areas in terms of their wet and dry seasons. The wet season gives lushness and rivers, but the high grasses can make spotting game difficult. The dry season, can thin out the herds, but water holes can be fabulous. Third, in many of the private reserves, especially in South Africa the game is highly managed. In 2018 I spent 4 days at a lodge in the Sabi Sand PV next to the Kruger. I saw 11 different leopards. Mostly because the reserve cultivates large herds of Impala. It’s not the real Africa. Now for the correction, in your first discussion of the Mara you described seeing water buffalo. I suspect what you saw were Cape buffalo as there are no wild water buffalos in sub-Saharan Africa.

      • Thank you Stephen. Those are excellent points. I do not have a big interest in flora and fauna, and only a little bit of interest in birds so I was not thinking of those when I drafted my planning guide. However, overall, I am a great believer in guides and tours. I always book them wherever we go in the world because I want someone with expertise to educate me a much as they can. If you can afford to go on a safari with someone driving and guiding you, then you will get far more out of the experience. I also think your thoughts on wet and dry season are excellent. I prefer going in the dry season because it is easier to see the animals, but I also love seeing animals near or in the water. For that reason, I would recommend safaris in Zambia near or on the Zambezi river in summer time. You will get the best of both worlds. Thank you for the correction re. the Cape buffalo. You are absolutely correct.

  • How lucky are you to have had all those experiences! Thank you for sharing them with us 🙂 canoe and horseback riding safaris sound so good to me!
    I agree with the idea that having to be patient and look for wildlife makes the experience more authentic, I would definitely take that into account when doing my research.

    • I feel very blessed with my time in Africa. I think that you have picked two fantastic ones – canoe and horseback riding safari. I look forward to seeing your photos from those experiences!

  • I’m thinking to go on safari in the near future but I still can’t make up my mind as to where do go, East Africa or Southern Africa. Im 67 and my daughter is 40. We would love to see the animals, especially the babies. I think a private safari will be best for us and I’d like very luxurious accommodations.
    Some areas have the animal orphanages and rehab centers. I was wondering if you would suggest we go to those to respectfully see the babies up close, and what area would you suggest, East or south? Any really great places to stay?

    • Hi Patrice, My favourite safari that we have ever done was in Zambia at Chongwe River house - This was out of this world luxurious and the experience that we had – – were UNBELIEVABLE. You wouldn’t need this big house, but they offer luxury tents nearby where our friends stayed. They absolutely loved it too. Another favourite was in Kenya at the Elewana tented camp and star beds. That was also amazing. The difference was I loved being near and on the Zambezi River (Zambia). The amount of time we boated and were surrounded by wild animals was simply breathtaking. As for rehabilitation centres or animal orphanages, I’m sorry, I have never done that. However, if you research and find the time when most animals are having their babies, then you should see lots in the wild. I’m happy to answer more questions. Just let me know.

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